Googology Wiki
Googology Wiki

Hey Psi! I like your letter notation, and have been trying to work out how it might be extended further. I was thinking of publishing some of my thoughts on a blog here. Can I do this as long as I give credit to you for the original? Username5243 (talk) 00:32, February 17, 2017 (UTC)

Generally, yes. I'm happy when people use my work in their own ideas. 
My only concern is that having two different "letter notations" around is going to confuse people in the future. Remember that my goal is to create some "gold standard" of writing large numbers, similar to scientific notation. If different variations start flying around, this could turn out to be very confusing very fast.
(I've actually refrained from publishing an improvement on my notation in the past, because of this. Better to have an imperfect but unambigous way to evaluate expressions, in my opinion) PsiCubed2 (talk) 11:51, February 17, 2017 (UTC)
"having two different "letter notations" around is going to confuse people in the future" You should rename your letter notation to "the former letter notation". I suggest this only because then the other one could be named "the latter letter notation" which sounds cool. LittlePeng9 (talk) 14:51, February 17, 2017 (UTC)
As a word play, that's brilliant!
Unfortunately, it won't really solve the issue of not knowing what (say) H2.345 means. We won't start writing "former" and "latter" on every number, right?
Maybe I'll simply use a different notation for the new version. PsiCubed2 (talk) 19:17, February 18, 2017 (UTC)

I feel that this is the only way to reach you so, I have become aware that this issue with several members (including you) of this community with me will not stop until my blog (Ben's number) is gone, so i went out of my own way to delete the contents of the blog, to end this silly war.

As i have said before i am currently working on a second number anyways, so that blog is, to be blunt, pointless, and should be removed whenever possible.

I would also like to apologise for the disruptions caused by my mistakes and I admit you was right i had crossed a line that i had not seen and will not do it again. Benjamin Simon Clifford (talk) 07:37, July 10, 2017 (UTC) (Benthe1st)

I really like your fractional psi levels idea, idk if it was supposed to but it helped me a lot! MachineGun (talk) 10:05, January 5, 2018 (UTC)

Thanks for the kind words (and yes, it was supposed to help :-)) PsiCubed2 (talk) 21:19, March 3, 2018 (UTC)

Welcome Back!

Greetings PsiCubed2, as you yourself have said in your most recent blog post, you will be absent from this wiki for a short while and therefore will not be back until at least February 1; therefore in writing this I've kept in mind it will not be received until the future, but my words will still hold nonetheless then.

You could probably benefit from not mentioning whatever User:Cloudy176 does that you don't like, and sticking to what you believe in rather than throwing up your hands and posting comments like the following out of what appears to be thinly veiled spite:


I understand you're frustrated over the Wiki's situation, but the best course may be to help it yourself, rather than rely on anyone else to go about things the way you want them to. In short I'm not trying to tell you what to do, (that would be hypocritical considering what I'm telling you), but I think it'd be better for you to let go of these sorts of comments and to edit more on the main space.

I hope you had a good vacation. Edwin Shade (talk) 04:01, January 7, 2018 (UTC)

Swastika-shaped Unicode characters

Can you add a comment to MediaWiki talk:Titleblacklist#Swastika-shaped Unicode characters? -- 18:06, February 19, 2018 (UTC)

No. Given that nobody is actually using these characters, this looks like an attempt to create controversy for the sake of controversy. Sorry, but I won't take part in this. PsiCubed2 (talk) 21:42, February 19, 2018 (UTC)

May I ask what the code word is for?

If you have Discord, you can send through DMs. My username is Nish#4104

Nishada 00:01, March 22, 2018 (UTC)

Nope. You've proven yourself to be a rotten person and I don't want to have any business with you. PsiCubed2 (talk) 00:03, March 22, 2018 (UTC)
I cleared up what happened, so can you tell me now? Nishada 02:06, March 23, 2018 (UTC)
I'm very sorry, but still no. Nothing personal. I won't tell anyone else, either. It is a secret and delicate matter (and there probably won't be any more of these code phrases, anyway). 
I also apologize for my previous "answer". You cought me in a very very stressful situation. PsiCubed2 (talk) 09:10, March 23, 2018 (UTC)


hi psi, obviously i owe you apologies. i'm not able to be present to help deal with the frustrations you've been having with the wiki's administration, and from my distance i wasn't really monitoring how damaging the absence of moderation has been. (also, i'm sorry for being unnecessarily smug towards you in some previous interactions.)

the timing may be a little awkward since i understand you've been meaning to take a break, but i think it makes sense to hand you admin privileges. you clearly care a lot about keeping this place tidy and i admire that. at risk of sounding mushy, this site has a lot of nostalgic value for me and while my own interests have moved on, i deeply appreciate seeing genuine passion about it over nine years into its existence. peace, and best wishes :) -- vel! 07:50, March 22, 2018 (UTC)

Thanks. But I need to privately contact you ASAP. Don't worry, I'm not about to drag you into actively wasting your time here, but I do need to ask you for advice which is inappropriate to ask for in public (and amazingly, wikia does not have an option of private messaging). Because the current situation can only be solved by a joined effort, and Cloudy is completely ignoring all my attempts at contacting him. PsiCubed2 (talk) 15:04, March 22, 2018 (UTC)
my email is visible at this deleted revision visible only to administrators:
may take a day or two to respond. -- vel! 18:00, March 22, 2018 (UTC)
I have sent a reply to one of the emails you sent. Sorry for the delay! -- ☁ I want more clouds! ⛅ 16:42, March 23, 2018 (UTC)

Joyce's unsourced numbers

You have deleted two categories. Can you also delete the unsourced numbers, which are in the deleted categories? -- 20:41, March 22, 2018 (UTC)

No. I have no way to know which articles you're talking about, and even if I could find them - it wouldn't be proper to delete a batch of articles without discussing it first.
If you wish, start a discussion on of the topic at "Talk:Candidates for Deletion" . PsiCubed2 (talk) 20:51, March 22, 2018 (UTC)

ok so about that ''insult''

my reply is this:

artismscrub made exaggerated comments similar to ''we need to call the police on edwin'' and ''edwin belongs to a mental hospital''

with your reply, you said something like ''You won't feel so ''smoothie'' anymore when we find out your location'', which implies that you have/had similar exaggerated beliefs to artismscrub

and the reason why i called it the ''edwin shade virus'' is because (1) edwin also has exaggerated beliefs and (2) you both got the ''edwin shade virus'' during the still-ongoing ''edwin era'' and most likely also because of edwin

and, before you ask:

  • why didn't you reply to me before?

i didn't see your reply and i had other stuff to do

  • that is in no way an exaggerated comment, it's the truth

then tell me: why didn't FANDOM suggest any method involving edwin's real life when cloudy asked them for help with dealing with edwin? simple: edwin's mental health doesn't concern us (as long as all this drama stops) and trying to call the police on edwin or something might as well get us in legal trouble.

Nishada 23:15, March 22, 2018 (UTC)

FANDOM doesn't monitor this site and don't know how big the problem is. They don't particularly care about this wiki anyway, because we are a small group that deals with a pretty esoteric topic of interest.
And had you bothered to actually ask me what I meant by that comment, you would have realized that it has nothing to do with calling the cops or with Edwin's "mental health". I was suggesting contacting his ISP and/or his parents in order to ensure that he stops bugging us.
In other words: I was doing the responsible thing (and since I'm now an admin here - my job).
And actually, you didn't even have to ask me anything to understand the context. Had you simply followed the events of the last 24 hours before that comment was made, you would have had all the info you needed to avoid this misunderstanding.
TL;DR: Next time you feel like inserting a nasty jab into an already tense situation, check your facts first. PsiCubed2 (talk) 23:31, March 22, 2018 (UTC)
oh Nishada 23:35, March 22, 2018 (UTC)

Mad guy who got False-Blocked

Hey PsiCubed, I just wanted to know why I got blocked. I had to log out to contact you. Anyway, my username is StillNotOriginal. Can you PLEASE explain the block???!??!!

2604:6000:6F4B:1500:1EF:BED2:B2BD:A959 00:01, April 22, 2018 (UTC)

Nope PsiCubed2 (talk) 00:10, April 22, 2018 (UTC)
I think the person who blocked someone has the responsibility to clearly explain the reason of the block when he/she gets asked about it. Rpakr (talk) 00:20, April 22, 2018 (UTC)
Not when the person who asks the question already knows the answer, and is doing this only to lure me into wasting my time.
And Rpakr? I know your intentions are good, but can you please let me do my job? PsiCubed2 (talk) 00:28, April 22, 2018 (UTC)
I'm sorry. Rpakr (talk) 11:49, April 22, 2018 (UTC)
What do you mean, waste your time????? 2604:6000:6F4B:1500:E8AD:3634:DD22:A97B 23:41, April 23, 2018 (UTC)
No problem. You had no way to know. And please don't let this frighten you into not voicing your opinion on admin issues. I generally welcome feedback and criticism, especially from prolific and experienced members like you. It's just that I'm trying to deal with a very delicate situation here. PsiCubed2 (talk) 12:30, April 22, 2018 (UTC)
You got blocked two weeks ago and you're only complaining about it now? Why?
Also, since when can Psi actually block people around here? I must have missed something Username5243 (talk) 12:01, April 22, 2018 (UTC)
You can read this blog post. Rpakr (talk)
Shows what happens when you go off for a while to play antimatter Dimensions and do other stuff... LOL Username5243 (talk)
Check the update log of this page. He didn't wait two weeks. He's just updating the page every once in a while with a new time stamp. PsiCubed2 (talk) 12:30, April 22, 2018 (UTC)

I didn't realize you could actually do that.

I only realized you were an admin when I went to check the "contributions" page of the person who got blocked (the account the person at the top of the section claims to be) and saw that you blocked him, so that's why I asked. Username5243 (talk) 12:45, April 22, 2018 (UTC)

I'm getting dizzy. What the heck is going on here? What answer? I have so many questions about this crap. Edit: It's the person from above.

2604:6000:6F4B:1500:2481:E070:76D:7A05 02:29, April 23, 2018 (UTC)

Also, I've been looking at afew links and it has something to do with this guy named Edwin Shade. You seriously think I'M him? This is just an assumption, tell me if I'm wrong, but if it is true, then we have another case of the False-Blocks. 2604:6000:6F4B:1500:E8AD:3634:DD22:A97B 23:40, April 23, 2018 (UTC)

Can you show us some kind of evidence that you are not Edwin Shade? Without any evidence, there is still a possibility that you are Edwin Shade and are lying. Rpakr (talk) 00:23, April 24, 2018 (UTC)
Why are you even debating him? That's exactly what he wants. PsiCubed2 (talk) 00:57, April 24, 2018 (UTC)
If I was Edwin,
  1. I wouldn't try to get back this account
  2. Make a sockpuppet
  3. Not reveal secrets, I'm in 6th grade
  4. Edit: I created a community and Edwin wouldn't do that with a sockpuppet account. Here
  5. I actually made a blog post with my stuff and everything. 2604:6000:6F4B:1500:49F3:1D2:CEF3:F6C2 00:58, April 25, 2018 (UTC)

Prime Factorization Challenge

WaxPlanck (talk) 19:31, April 13, 2018 (UTC) Can you delete the challenge because I am restarting the challenge at ? (This version will not have rewards.)

Redirected the page instead. -- ☁ I want more clouds! ⛅ 14:42, April 14, 2018 (UTC)
Sorry for not seeing your request earlier. I see that cloudy already did it for you. If you need anything else, feel free to ask PsiCubed2 (talk) 19:05, April 14, 2018 (UTC)

About your psi levels

I found a mistake in your blog post. In levels 42 to 46 you have one unnecessary omega in the tower. Rpakr (talk) 22:18, April 16, 2018 (UTC)

GAH! How did that happen?
It's fixed now. PsiCubed2 (talk) 22:24, April 16, 2018 (UTC)
Also in 43 you used x instead of ×. x is the alphabet and × is the multiply sign. Rpakr (talk) 23:25, April 16, 2018 (UTC)
I know. Ever since Wikia's code changed a few months ago, adding special symbols with special formating has became cumbersome. It's not a quick fix. PsiCubed2 (talk) 00:01, April 17, 2018 (UTC)


… has been deleted, but Godsgodgulus-by-pentacthulhum‎ is still there, even if I created both pages after the comment on my talk page. -- 09:19, April 23, 2018 (UTC)

Fixed PsiCubed2 (talk) 09:24, April 23, 2018 (UTC)

But Grand godsgodguliterator should be kept, since it is also called great and blasphemous godsgodgulus. -- 09:32, April 23, 2018 (UTC)

That's for the community to decide.
For now, stop creating these articles. And feel free to join the discussion after your 24-hour block is up. PsiCubed2 (talk) 09:41, April 23, 2018 (UTC)
Update: In case you missed it, the community have decided to put the creation of all new googolism articles on hold for the time being. Please respect this decision. PsiCubed2 (talk) 01:07, April 24, 2018 (UTC)


… should be protected from creation by anonymous users. -- 10:55, May 1, 2018 (UTC)

No point in doing that. They'll just create an article with a slightly different name. PsiCubed2 (talk) 10:57, May 1, 2018 (UTC)

About the analysis of BMS

As you mentioned in the comment section of this blog post, you seem not to like not detailed analysis of BMS. I am working on the analysis of BMS and I want it to be detailed, so I would like to have your opinion. How do you think about this analysis that I did a few days ago? Do you think it is detailed enough? If not, how should I do the analysis? Rpakr (talk) 07:31, July 16, 2018 (UTC)

Contact for some chitter-chatter

Hi psi. Regarding "my" "attempt" at "well-defining" UNOCF, I just wanted to talk with you about it a bit. I don't intend to talk that much, and I feel like emails would cripple a bit discussion. Do you have any service where I could talk in real time with you ? It's not very important at all, and if you don't want to I can understand it, and I'll work around it.

Syst3ms 14:03, August 6, 2018 (UTC)

I don't do chat programs (I hate real-time communications. Not enough time to think about anything).
But if you want to talk, go ahead. I'll be happy to. If you don't expect it to be a long conversation, we can do here on my talk page. Otherwise, creating a new page for it would probably be better. PsiCubed2 (talk) 20:11, August 6, 2018 (UTC)

Could I create an account at the Large Number Forums?

despacito 23:51, August 17, 2018 (UTC)

can you respond despacito 00:58, August 24, 2018 (UTC)

Questions to your blog posts "A smoother ordinal scale up to ω^ω"

I have some questions about your blog post, "A smoother ordinal scale up to ω^ω". I am asking these questions here because I cannot comment in the blog post.

1. What do you mean by  \((\omega^n \cdot k) = n+1-({{2} \over {3}})^{k-1}\)? \(f\) does not appear in this equation.

Do you mean \(f(\omega^n \cdot k) = n+1-({{2} \over {3}})^{k-1}\)?

2. "This results in a relatively smooth scale of ordinals up to \(\omega^\omega\), with the rational number \(n\) representing \(\omega^n\)."

What does \(\omega^n\) mean when \(n\) is not a natural number? For example, what is \(\omega^{0.5}\)?

Rpakr (talk) 03:37, October 2, 2018 (UTC)

1. \((\omega^n \cdot k)\) seems to be a typo of \(f(\omega^n \cdot k)\).
2. "The rational number \(n\)" here means the natural number \(n\) regarded as a rational number. Namely, he defined a "smooth" injective map \(f \colon \omega^{\omega} \hookrightarrow \mathbb{Q}\) with \(f(\omega^n) = n\) for any \(n \in \mathbb{N}\). By the equality \((\frac{2}{3})^k - (\frac{2}{3})^{k-1} = \frac{1}{3} (\frac{2}{3})^{k-1}\), the restriction of \(f\) to the preimage of \([0,n)\) is folded \(\omega\)-times into the restriction of \(f\) to the preimage of \([n,n+1)\). It is quite interesting.
p-adic 04:50, October 2, 2018 (UTC)
See you already got your answers :-) PsiCubed2 (talk) 05:16, October 2, 2018 (UTC)

WaxPlanck (talk) 18:44, October 6, 2018 (UTC) I have asked this before. I want to run the Oracle Turing Machine with 2 states provided by Wythagoras at I will post the running info at 10^6 steps (assuming it doesn’t halt before (10^6)+1 steps.


Psi, could you come on the wiki’s chat for a moment? I’d like to speak with you privately.

(I’m not Edwin Shade, and can prove so in private.

Redd Oxen (talk) 18:40, October 10, 2018 (UTC)

Reply to your comment

In this blog post , you made this comment. Reply to your comment:

Discord does work as a place to discuss googology, but not an encyclopedia of googology. This wiki can both be used to discuss googology (blog posts, talk pages, user pages, etc.) and an encyclopedia (articles). So, discord can work as an alternative of blog posts, talk pages and user pages etc., but not the articles. However, the situation of the articles are better than that of the blog posts. Rpakr (talk) 16:17, October 22, 2018 (UTC)


Hey psicubed I have a doubt regarding your J letter notation read the below this is a big number library used for an increment game,which uses your letter notation:


Using arrows, large numbers such as 10{16}(10{12})^51 (10^^^)^6 eeee104 can be easily written, and numbers not talked about here are relatively close to other numbers, thus is discarded. However, we hit a limit; the notation is strongest if we increase the n in 10{n}10 as if it were a variable. No worries, we can just put numbers with hyperoperators as the number of arrows! Well, we will get some problems. We will get something like 10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10^^^(10^^)^520 ee500}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10. It is very hard on eyes, and very large in comparison, defeating the purpose of notation numbers in the first place. It also takes a lot of space as text, and it takes so long to write it by hand. I only put this because I could make the computer repeat pieces of text set amount of times. Worst of all, to compare which number are larger, you need to count each individual layers, and that is impractical. There must be a better way to handle such large numbers, right?Luckily, there is! Function f(x)=10{x}10 is written as Jx. This is defined as a part of PsiCubed2's letter notation. In addition, we can treat this as another operation, this time unary, but we always treated 10{n}x as unary operation "10{n}", so no worries. So, we can now see the above number clearly, written J^45 10^^^(10^^)^520 ee500.

Ok I have a doubt in the above description,what exactly is J^45, can you explain in detail I mean how did he J^45 from the number above,also how can the above number 10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10{10^^^(10^^)^520 ee500}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10}10 be written in Beaf form of expansion that is {a,b,1,2}, also I were to write something like J^9000000000000000 10{9000000000000000}10^10^10^10^10^10^10^100000000000000 ,what would J^90000000000000000 mean here and how can this number be expressed in Beaf expansion form.can you please answer?