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The irrational arrow notation (無理矢印表記 in Japanese) is a variant of the arrow notation defined by a Japanese Googology Wiki user Jason.[1][2] It is an irrational analogue of another variant called the rational arrow notation defined by Jason.[1]


Definition

We denote by \(\mathbb{N}_{>0}\) the set of positive integers, and by \(\mathbb{R}_{>0}\) the set of positive numbers. We define a map \begin{eqnarray*} \mathbb{N}_{>0}^2 \times \mathbb{R}_{>0}^2 & \to & \mathbb{N}_{>0} \\ ((a,b),(c,\Delta)) & \mapsto & a \uparrow^{c(\Delta)} b \end{eqnarray*} as the unique one satisfying the following relations:

  1. If \(b = 1\) or \(c \leq 1\), then \(a \uparrow^{c(\Delta)} b := a^b\).
  2. If \(b > 1\) and \(c > 1\), then \(a \uparrow^{c(\Delta)} b := a \uparrow^{c'(\Delta')} (a \uparrow^{c(\Delta)} (b-1))\), where \(c'\) and \(\Delta'\) are defined in the following way:

\begin{eqnarray*} c' & := & c \log_{\Delta'+1}(\Delta') \\ \Delta' & := & \left\{ \begin{array}{ll} a \uparrow^{c-1(\Delta)} b & (\Delta \notin (1,a \uparrow^{c-1(\Delta)} b)) \\ \Delta & (\Delta \in (1,a \uparrow^{c-1(\Delta)} b)) \end{array} \right. \end{eqnarray*} Since it is defined on an uncountable set, it is uncomputable by the definition of the computability.


Analysis

The order type of the structural ordering of the irrational arrow notation is \(\omega 2\).[3] In order words, there exists a well-founded strict partial ordering \(<\) on \(\mathbb{N}_{>0}^2 \times \mathbb{R}_{>0}^2\) such that the two characteristic relations above refer only to the values of the irrational arrow notation whose imput is smaller than \(((a,b),(c,\Delta))\) with respect to \(<\), and \(\omega 2\) is the least ordinal type of such a well-founded strict partial ordering. In particular, the totality of the irrational arrow notation is provable under a weak arithmetic which can prove the well-foundedness of \(\omega 2\).

On the other hand, the growth rates of the \(1\)-ary function \(x \uparrow^{x(x)} x\) and \(x \uparrow^{x(0)} x\) on \(\mathbb{N}\) are bounded by \(\omega+1\) in Wainer hierarchy.[4][5]

Significance

By the argument above, the irrational arrow notation gives a non-trivial example of a large function which can be approximated to an ordinal in FGH with respect to a canonical system of fundamental sequences smaller than the ordinal type of the structural ordering. It is significant because many googologists believe that large functions can be approximated to the ordinal type of the structural ordering in FGH with respect to a canonical system of fundamental sequences. For example, many googologists state that TREE grows as fast as \(f_{\vartheta(\Omega^{\omega} \omega)}(n)\) as if it had already been verified, but what has been actually verified is that the ordinal type of its structural ordering. As the analysis of the irrational arrow notation implies, such a reasoning is critically incorrect.


See also

By Aeton: Okojo numbers · N-growing hierarchy
By 新井 (Arai): Arai's \(\psi\)
By バシク (BashicuHyudora): Primitive sequence number · Pair sequence number · Bashicu matrix system 1/2/3/4
By ふぃっしゅ (Fish): Fish numbers (Fish number 1 · Fish number 2 · Fish number 3 · Fish number 4 · Fish number 5 · Fish number 6 · Fish number 7 · S map · SS map · s(n) map · m(n) map · m(m,n) map) · Bashicu matrix system 1/2/3/4 computation programmes · TR function (I0 function)
By じぇいそん (Jason): Irrational arrow notation · δOCF · δφ · ε function
By 甘露東風 (Kanrokoti): KumaKuma ψ function
By 小林銅蟲 (Kobayashi Doom): Sushi Kokuu Hen
By koteitan: Bashicu matrix system 2.3
By mrna: 段階配列表記 · 降下段階配列表記 · 多変数段階配列表記 · SSAN · S-σ
By Naruyoko Naruyo: Y sequence computation programme · ω-Y sequence computation programme
By Nayuta Ito: N primitive · Flan numbers · Large Number Lying on the Boundary of the Rule of Touhou Large Number 4
By p進大好きbot: Large Number Garden Number
By たろう (Taro): Taro's multivariable Ackermann function
By ゆきと (Yukito): Hyper primitive sequence system · Y sequence · YY sequence · Y function · ω-Y sequence
See also: Template:Googology in Asia


Sources

  1. 1.0 1.1 Jason, 有理矢印表記と無理矢印表記, Google Document.
  2. The user page of Jason in Japanese Googology Wiki.
  3. p進大好きbot, 無理矢印表記の全域性, a Japanese Googology Wiki user blog.
  4. p進大好きbot, 無理矢印表記の評価その1, a Japanese Googology Wiki user blog.
  5. p進大好きbot, 無理矢印表記の評価その2, a Japanese Googology Wiki user blog.
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